The French and Indian War was just one arena of the Seven Years War, an epic struggle between France and Great Britain and her colonial allies. Here, both sides were fighting for control of the North American continent. The war represented the first large-scale mobilization of the colonial militias and would prove to be a critical factor in the war for American Independence that would follow less than a generation later. Most famous is the Battle of Quebec, where British General Wolfe surprised French forces on the Plains of Abraham outside the city of Quebec and decisively routed them. Wolfe himself was shot and killed and did not see the French surrender on September 18th or the takeover of French Canada by the British.